Virus Under a Microscope
Virus Under a Microscope

These Are the 10 Nastiest Travel Diseases

What they are, what they do, and why you don't want them.

Wise travelers know to “get their jabs” before setting sail to some far off place. But why? What exactly are these diseases we’re all getting inoculated against? Will they lead to a grim and grisly death or just a good story to tell the grandkids?

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We combed CDC Travel and other health resources to gather a list of diseases and the most common travel illnesses, and all the reasons why you want to avoid them.

The Most Common Travel Illnesses

#1: Cholera

Forgive me for feeling that this disease sounded romantic when Gabriel Garcia Marquez included it in the title of his novel Love in the Time of Cholera — it is actually pretty nasty. You might pick it up in many parts of Africa and Asia, but it can occur anywhere with poor sanitation. You don’t want cholera because you’ll end up with diarrhea, vomiting, and fever, and it has the potential to be fatal, too.

Jabs are all well and good but the usefulness of the cholera vaccine is disputed — some experts say its effectiveness is only 50%. Since you pick up the cholera bacteria from contaminated food and water, you should avoid uncooked food and unbottled water.

Book Cover

© Ross_Angus

#2: Tetanus

While tetanus is the kind of disease that could happen to you anywhere, the highest number of reported incidences are in places like India and countries in central Africa. Tetanus is also called lockjaw for a good reason — it affects your nervous system and makes your muscles spasm and seize up.

But the good news about tetanus is that the vaccine is perfect. As long as you have your booster every ten years. Even in the United States, five people still die every year from tetanus, so it’s worth getting the jab even if you’re not planning to travel soon.

#3: Typhoid

Don’t ask me why, but typhoid has always sounded really dark and tragic to me. What I hadn’t realized is that it’s actually caused by the salmonella bacteria, and is transmitted if you consume food or water that’s been contaminated by the feces of an infected person. Nasty. It’s most commonly contracted in India and parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.

Typhoid is a disease that might hit you suddenly, but then develops slowly — you’ll get a fever, and after a week or so you might become delirious. In the vast majority of cases, it isn’t fatal, and the vaccine is also reasonably effective.


© jurvetson

#4: Dengue Fever

Once you know that dengue fever has been nicknamed break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease, you know it’s something you want to avoid. The initial fever is made worse by a headache, muscle and joint pains along with a really unattractive rash.

Dengue fever is most commonly found in tropical areas and parts of Africa. It’s a bit scarier because it also occurs in more developed parts of the tropics, like Singapore or Taiwan. Mosquitoes spread this disease and there’s no commercial vaccine yet, so use a repellent and nets to avoid getting bitten.

#5: Hepatitis

The various incarnations of hepatitis are running there way through the alphabet, but travelers need to worry most about types A and B.

Hepatitis A is found in developing countries including India, Mexico, Latin America and parts of Africa and is a nasty infection of the liver. Symptoms include fever, nausea and jaundice for a week or up to several months, but it’s rarely fatal, and it is usually picked up from contaminated food and water or close contact with infected people.

Hep A’s big, bad brother Hepatitis B is found in similar regions, plus the Middle East and some Pacific Islands, and can lead to a whole heap of liver damage, cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Fortunately, it’s also harder to catch, as it’s usually transmitted only via blood, shared needles and body fluids. You have to plan ahead if you’re traveling to a Hepatitis B risk area because vaccinations must start over six months before you travel. And this one can kill you.

#6: Malaria

This is one of the trickiest diseases (and one of the most common travel illnesses) to deal with while traveling abroad. Most of the medication needs to be taken before, during, and after your trip, and some of it can have unpleasant side effects. These days, malaria is found in at least a hundred countries — the Center for Disease Control has quite a handy risk map to check your destination.

Malaria Control Sign

Malaria Control Sign © otisarchives2

You can catch malaria from a mosquito bite, so covering up against these nasties is a must along with taking medication. Symptoms including a fever and something similar to the flu; it’s not usually fatal, but it can be. Scientists are still working on a vaccine against malaria, and that’s something that would be a big benefit to travels if they figured it out successfully.

#7: Yellow Fever

Another mosquito-borne nasty is yellow fever. It’s among the most common travel illnesses, mostly found in the tropical parts of South America and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Victims usually end up with jaundice, hence “yellow” fever. But while yellow fever can also kill you, it’s easier to prevent because the vaccination is nearly always effective, and only needs to be administered a couple of weeks before you travel.

#8: HIV / AIDS

While definitely not only a travelers’ disease, HIV is becoming a serious issue for travelers in Africa and South East Asia where it’s become scarily prevalent. Yet a lot of carriers don’t realize they have the virus. As a result, many of these people will remain untreated and consequently, die of AIDS.

Fortunately, reducing your risk of contracting HIV as a traveler is mostly a matter of common sense and taking care. Avoid casual sex, use your own, high-quality condoms if you have sex with someone you meet, don’t share needles or syringes or get a tattoo or piercing. Common sense, right?

#9: Japanese Encephalitis

Those mosquitoes are responsible for all manner of unfriendly diseases and Japanese encephalitis is definitely one to avoid. It affects the central nervous system, causing severe flu-like symptoms, and it can be fatal. The vaccine is quite effective, especially if you get the recommended two doses.

And contrary to the suggestion in its name, Japanese encephalitis isn’t limited to Japan at all — it’s most common in agricultural regions of countries like Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Nepal and Malaysia. Again, cover up against mosquitoes if you’re traveling in these areas.

#10: Meningitis

Meningitis is another common travel illness/disease that’s not exclusively the province of travelers or the third world — it can occur, rarely, in Western countries too. However, the “Meningitis Belt” is an area stretching across Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia where it’s relatively common for large outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis to occur.

Meningitis usually comes from contact with, ahem, nose or throat discharges from someone who’s infected. This time you’ll also start with a fever, but usually progress to vomiting, a stiff neck and a bad purple rash. There are vaccinations available (but not against all kinds), or antibiotics can treat it. If you have suspicion of having meningitis, it’s the sort of thing you want to check out immediately — untreated cases are often fatal.

So, there you have it: the most common travel illnesses. If you get your shots before you travel, and you’re relatively careful on the road, the worst case scenario is usually just a minor version of these nasty diseases. But remember, I’m not a doctor, so check with yours before you head off into the danger zone.

For more info on the most common travel illnesses and foreign diseases, check out:

  1. It’s funny though… I think Aussies are a bit obsessed about getting their jabs. I’m one and I know I was when I lived there. As a young backpacker, I’d go off and spend a couple of hundred bucks getting whatever the doctor ordered. I’ve lived overseas for 10 years and I travel constantly (I’m a travel writer) and I haven’t had a shot of anything in 10 years and I’ve travelled all over the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and not caught a thing. And I just don’t know anyone, ot even frequent travellers who go to dodgy countries, who get shots anymore – there just isn’t the level of awareness around in some countries that there is down under. Interestingly, I caught Malaria around 12 years ago when I was in the Amazon and had taken all the precautions.

  2. Interesting point, Lara … although I have to say when I lived in Germany my GP was paranoid about giving me tons of jabs – even just to go camping in Germany, and when I said I was going to Africa … she was jumping on their special intranet site to get all the latest info. So it’s not just an Aussie thing, but yep, we do like getting jabs!

  3. Hi, You forget to mention that Rio de Janeiro now is passing for a Dengue epidemia. And many places in North Brazil:includes Amazonia have problems with: Malaria, Yellow Fever and Dengue.
    YF and Dengue is presente in all places.

  4. Thanks Izabel, that’s true. I’ve also been reading Dengue warnings for New Caledonia recently. It definitely pays to check out the current warnings for your destination.

  5. Dengue was pretty rife when I lived in Saigon. Some of the TEFL crowd were out for weeks with it. An addiction to 30 Rock is all they got to cure it.

  6. While doctors at home can certainly be too conservative, some of the jabs are necessary. I won’t let my yellow fever vaccine lapse if I’m travelling, in part because it sucks to get it, but also because some countries won’t let you in the country if you don’t have proof of the vaccine. (I watched travellers get turned away at the border of Bolivia because they didn’t have proof of the vaccine.) And I wouldn’t mess around with Hepatitis (I keep my A/B vaccines up to date too).

    What about amoebic dysentery? Speaking from experience, it is not the most fun I’ve had on my travels :)

  7. Vaccinations are such a controversial issue. Before an impromptu trip to Costa Rica last spring, I had to decide whether it was worth it to put harmful chemicals in my body or risk getting sick. I ended up opting to skip getting jabbed and didn’t have any issues over the sixteen day trip. That said, I wonder if I would be so “risky” while going to other places or going somewhere long-term…

  8. I’ve been travelling for many years and constantly for the last 3 years, i’ve been to 85 countries. I have my tetanus up to date and that’s it, no other jabs! and have never been sick. I’ve just spent 7 months in Central America including the Amazon jungle never even got sickness or diarrhoea. I might be on the extreme but sometimes you can be over cautious!

  9. That’s why as a traveler, we should always be vaccinated and keep a healthy life so there will be minimal chance for us to get sick. Thanks for this very informative article.

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